Category Archives: Euhemerism

A bona fide proven historical methodology yet persecuted by Darwinists

‘The Babyloniaca’ of Berossus – by Stanley Mayer

The Babyloniaca of Berossus by Stanley Mayer Burstein sources and monographs sources from the ancient near east  volume 1, fascicle 5 undena publication malibu  1978 ANET FGrH Grayson JCS RLA RE
ABBREVIATIONS
Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (1948)
Die Fragmente der Grieschischen Historiker (1923-1958)
Texts from Cuneiform Sources, vol. 5, Assyrian and Babylonian
Chronicles (1975)
Journal ofCuneiform Studies
Reallexicon der Assyriologie (1928-1938; 1957-)
Real-Encycloplidie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abbreviations …………………………………………………………. 1
Table of Contents . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ……………3
A. Introduction………………………………………………………..4
1. The Hellenistic Period and Ancient Near Eastern Civilization………………………… .4
2. The Life of Berossus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. The Babyloniaca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …6
4. Evaluation ………………………………………………………8
5. The Present Edition………………………………………………… IO
B. Book One: Genesis ………………………………………………….. 13
1. Prologue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2. The Revelation of Oannes…………………………………………….. 14
3. The Great Year……… : ………………………………………….. 15
4. The Moon ……………………………………………………… 16
5. The Walling of Babylon ……………………………………………… 17
6. Unplaced Fragments of Book One ……………………………………….. 17
C. Book Two: The Book of Kings……………………………………………. 18
1. Kings Before the Flood ……….·…………………………………….. 18
2. The Flood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3. Sages After the Flood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .·. . . ……………………………….. 21
4. Dynasties After the Flood…………………………………………….. 21
5. Nabu-Nasir……………………………………………………… 22
D. Book Three ………………………………………………………. 23
1. Tiglath-pileser/Pulu ………………………………………………… 23
2. Sennacherib . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …….. 23
3. Nabukadnezzar II …………………………………………………. 26
4. The Successors of Nebukadnezzar II ………………………………………. 28
5. The Persians . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
6. Possible Fragments from Book Two ………………………………………. 29
7. Doubtful Fragment ………………………………………………… 30
E. Appendices ………..·…………………………………………….. 31
1. The Authenticity of the Astronomical and Astrological Fragments……………………31
2. Berossus’ Chronology of the Dynasties after the Flood in Book Two……………………. 33
3. Berossus’ Chronology of the Reigns of Sennacherib and Esarhaddon……………………. 36
4. The Ptolemaic Canon……………………………………………….. 38
5. Concordance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

INTRODUCTION

1. The Hellenistic Period and Ancient Near Eastern Civilization
Alexander the Great’s conquest of the Persian Empire marks a major turning point in the cultural history of the Ancient Near East. Unlike their Persian predecessors, the Macedonians and Greeks were not part of the Mesopotamian culture area, but true aliens, largely ignorant of and unsympathetic to the values and ideals of
the civilizations of their new subjects. True, Greeks had visited the Near East for centuries as travelers, mercenaries and merchants. They had admired and continued to admire the great antiquity and splendid monuments of. its civilizations and had borrowed various artistic motives and techniques and even so important a tool as writing from the area, but they had been and continued largely to be unable to read and understand the cuneiform and hieroglyphic scripts in which the intellectual traditions of these cultures were recorded. 1
Consequently, they were outsiders, dependent for their knowledge on the observations of travelers such as Herodotus for Egypt or romancers such as Ctesias for Mesopotamia and on such information as they could glean from the guides and other members of the Near Eastern cultures who would associate with them. Not surprisingly, the new masters’ view of their subjects was seriously distorted, being based as it was on a curious melange of shrewd if often biased observations and only partially understood oral tradition.
Among those Near Eastern intellectuals who chose to deal with their new rulers we can isolate two essentially  different responses to the challenge posed by them. One group created a literature, both oral and written, of  protest, composing apocalyptic prophecies of the ultimate defeat of their oppressors on the one hand and elaborating still further the folk histories of the great heroes of their cultures’ past on the other. Thus, new conquests were ascribed to Sesostris and Semiramis and alongside them chauvinistic new legends were formed around such figures as Ramses II and Nectanebo II in Egypt, Taharqa in Nubia, Moses and Abraham in Judea 11 -, and Nebukadnezzar II in Babylonia. The other group, however, more willing to cooperate with their new masters, attempted to educate them hy the publication in Greek of authoritative accounts of their respective countries’ history and culture, accounts in which the factual errors of the popular Greek authorities would be corrected; at the same time they provided an introduction to the authentic traditions of their civilizations. The
compilation of such works was a genuine innovation, involving as it did the determination of what constituted the intellectual core of a civilization and then the presentation of that core in a foreign language in such a way that it would be understood by readers almost totally ignorant of it. The greatest and only completely surviving example of such a work is the Jewish antiquities of Flavius Josephus, but the first of them was the Babylonian history of Berossus, composed about 281 B.C. and dedicated to Antiochus I.

————————-
1For examples of late Hellenistic school texts in Greek and cuneiform suggesting that some Greeks attempted to learn cuneiform, see Edmond Solberger, ‘Graeco-Babyloniaca,’ Iraq, 24 (1962) 63-72. laFor Nebukadnezzar II and Taharqa see Megasthenes, FGrH, 3C2, 715 Ff I and 11. For Ramses II see Hecataeus of Abdera, FGrH, 3A, 264, F 25.47-49; Tacitus, Annales 2.60; and for Nectanebo II see Ps. Callisthenes, Historia Alexandri Magni, 1.1-14.
For Moses and Abraham see in particular Eupolemus, FGrH, 3C2, 723 F 1; Pseudo Eupolemus, FGrH, 3C2, 724 Ff, 1-2; and Artapanus, FGrH, 3C2, 726 Ff, 2-3. For this literature see Martin Braun, History and Romance in Graeco-Oriental Literature (Oxford, 1938); and Samuel K. Eddy, The King Is Dead: Studies in the Near Eastern Resistance to Hellenism 334-31 B.C. (Lincoln, 1961).
2Berossus, FGrH, 3Cl, 680 Tt 1-3. For his priorlty to Manetho see Manetho, FGrH, 3Cl, 609 T 11; and Oswyn Murray, ‘Herodotus and Hellenistic Culture,’ Qassical Quarterly, 66 (1972) 209. Paul Schnabel, Berossus und die babylonisch-hellenistische Literatur (Leipzig, 1923) 8-10, dated the work to between 293 and 280. The more precise date of ca. 281 is based on the chronological discussion in Appendix 2. I have followed Schnabel (16) in assuming that the title of the book was Babyloniaca and that the correct spelling of his name was Berossus (3-5). In regard to the latter, however, G. Komor6czy, ‘Berosos and the Mesopotamian Literature,’ Acta Antiqua, 21 (1973) 125, has recently proposed that the form Berosos is correct and that it should be interpreted as meaning ‘Bel is his shepherd.’ Unless otherwise noted all subsequent dates in this study are B.C. 

2. The life of Berossus
By the early centuries of our era Berossus had become a legendary figure. He was credited with the invention of a common type of sundial and honored in Athens for his prophecies with a statue in one of the city’s gymnasia. A family was even invented for him including a wife, Erymanthe, and a daughter, appropriately
one of antiquity’s famous sibyls, Sabbe, the Babylonian sibyl.3 Unfortunately, however, the known facts about Berossus’ life are, in contrast to the legendary, few and undramatic.
In the preface to his Babyloniaca Berossus stated that he was a contemporary of Alexander the Great, and this taken together with the fact that he wrote his book about 281 and lived for a time after that year allows us to set the date of his birth no earlier than about 350. In addition, he identified himself as a priest of Bel of Chaldaean origin. This implies, and the fragments of his book confirm, that he received a normal scribal education in the traditional Sumerian and Accadian classics. 4 Further, his ability to write in Greek, his familiarity with popular Greek conceptions of the Babylonian past, and the very fact of his writing a book such as the Babyloniaca for the instruction of Antiochus I points to his being a member of the Seleucid court, (perhaps one of the Chaldaean astrologers consulted by Seleucus I and his predecessors.5 Finally, some time after 281 Berossus abandoned Babylon and settled on the Ptolemaic island of Cos where, we are told, he became the first to give formal instruction to the Greeks in Chaldaean astrology.6 .
Scant though they are, these few facts about Berossus’ life in contrast to the later “Berossus legend” are helpful in the understanding of his book. They identify Berossus as an individual suspended between two cultures, Babylonian and Greek. Steeped in the traditions of Babylon and of its priesthood and proud of them, Berossus still accepted the new Greco-Macedonian regime as legitimate and had adjusted himself to it. For such a person the ignorance of the Greeks and Macedonians he associated with must by itself have been annoying, but Seleucus I’s deliberate policy of degrading Babylon and its shrines by transferring most of its population to his new capital city of Seleucia on the Tigris and the consequent friction between him and the priesthood can only have been deeply disturbing.7 It is tempting to think that Berossus saw in the accession of Antiochus I, long resident in Babylon as governor of the upper satrapies, the possibility of reversing this policy and wrote his book in the hope that a true account of the Babylonian past and its significance and of the proper relationship between the Chaldaean priesthood and a king might aid in inducing Antiochus to
repudiate his father’s policies. If so, then Berossus’ abandonment of Babylon in old age for Cos, Continue reading ‘The Babyloniaca’ of Berossus – by Stanley Mayer

Germania by Tacitus; 2000 Yr. Old History of Tuisto-/Tuisco-land, Twiskland, & Deutschland

In 1498, a monk named Annio da Viterbo published fragments, (put down as “Pseudo-Berossus”) stating that Babylonian records had shown that Tuiscon or Tuisto, the fourth son of Noah, had been the first ruler of Scythia and Germany following the dispersion of peoples, with him being succeeded by his son Mannus as the second king. Later historians (e.g. Johannes Aventinus) furnished numerous further details, including the theory by James Anderson that Tuiscon was in fact none other than the biblical Ashkenaz, son of Gomer.

There is another history that Tuitsch was a leader and/or descendant from a tribe of Assyrians that moved up into Europe long before this Roman History below was written by Tacitus. Tacitus relates that “ancient songs” (Latin carminibus antiquis) of the Germanic peoples celebrated Tuisto as “a god, born of the earth” (deum terra editum). These songs further attributed to him a son, Mannus, who in turn had three sons, the offspring of whom were referred to as Ingaevones, Herminones and Istaevones, living near the Ocean (proximi Oceano), in the interior (medii), and the remaining parts (ceteri) of the geographical region of Germania, respectively.

GERMANIA by TACITUS

Chapter I

TACITUS, Roman historian

Geography of Germany. “The various peoples of Germany are separated from the Gauls by the Rhine, from the Raetians and Pannonians by the Danube, and from the Sarmatians and Dacians by mountains – or, where there are no mountains, by mutual fear. The northern parts of the country are girdles by the sea, flowing round broad peninsulas and vast islands where a campaign of the present century has revealed to us the existence of some nations and kings hitherto unknown.

The Rhine rises in a remote and precipitous height of the Raetian alps and afterwards turns slightly westward to flow into the North Sea. The Danube issues from a gentle slope of moderate height in the Black Forest, and after passing more peoples than the Rhine in its course discharges itself into the Black Sea through six channels – a seventh mouth being lost in the marshlands.

Chapter II

The Inhabitants. Origins of the Name “Germany”. The Germans themselves I should regard as aboriginal, and not mixed at all with other races through immigration or intercourse. For, in former times it was not by land but on shipboard that those who sought to emigrate would arrive; and the boundless and, so to speak, hostile ocean beyond us, is seldom entered by a sail from our world. And, beside the perils of rough and unknown seas, who would leave Asia, or Africa for Italy for Germany, with its wild country, its inclement skies, its sullen manners and aspect, unless indeed it were his home?

In their ancient songs, their only way of remembering or recording the past they celebrate an earth-born god Tuisco, and his son Mannus, as the origin of their race, as their founders. To Mannus they assign three sons, from whose names, they say, the coast tribes are called Ingaevones; those of the interior, Herminones; all the rest, Istaevones. Some, with the freedom of conjecture permitted by antiquity, assert that the god had several descendants, and the nation several appellations, as Marsi, Gambrivii, Suevi, Vandilii, and that these are nine old names.

The name Germany, on the other hand, they say is modern and newly introduced, from the fact that the tribes which first crossed the Rhine and drove out the Gauls, and are now called Tungrians, were then called Germans. Thus what was the name of a tribe, and not of a race, gradually prevailed, till all called themselves by this self-invented name of Germans, which the conquerors had first employed to inspire terror.

Continue reading Germania by Tacitus; 2000 Yr. Old History of Tuisto-/Tuisco-land, Twiskland, & Deutschland

Ancient Pyramidal Egypt Had an Iron Culture Before the Darwinian “Bronze Age”

This video shows how 4500 years ago the pyramid builders had to have had machinery to cut basalt blocks and the Cairo museum of Antiquity shows pieces of iron cog wheels and iron saws. The periodisation of Stone, Bronze, and Iron Age is ideologically tainted by Darwinians to imply intellectual growth from Primates, to Cavemen, to Hunter Gatherers, to Early Man who was stupid and didn’t have iron and couldn’t get his act together, which is a totally false picture.

As the Darwinians could not fight this battle of wits any longer that there was iron machinery 4-5000 years ago, they changed tactics and infiltrated the Megalithic aficionados like Graham Hancock, making them talk about Man being here on Earth with smart civilisations long before 5000 years ago, like up to 10 or 20.000 years ago, again implying loooong ages and an oooold earth, which is not supported by the Ancients own writings, which you can find plenty of on this history blog.

ALL the ancients believed in a recent global flood and in Creation by God or gods before he Flood and in the Ten Kings that lived before the Flood. Oh the humanity! Why are we are so naive and so easily deceived by the elitist control freaks, also in academia? – Falsely so-called! Enjoy the video, and be educated.

First Geological Evidence for China’s [Da Yu’s] “Great Flood” Uncovered

by Meagan Phelan

Scientists have uncovered the first geological evidence for China’s “Great Flood,” an event marked in legend as the start of China’s first dynasty and the rise of its founding emperor.

The results, reported in the 5 August issue of Science, date the flood at 1920 B.C., several centuries later than suspected. This new timeline suggests that China’s first dynasty, Xia — as well as its founding Emperor Yu, famous for controlling the flood — also had a later start.

“The story of Yu taming the Great Flood is also the story of the beginnings of Chinese civilization,” said co-author David Cohen, assistant professor in the department of anthropology at National Taiwan University. “Yu’s control of the chaotic flood waters brought order to the lands, legend says, separating what would become a civilized Chinese center from the wild peripheries. This defined a people, as well as the social and political order in which they should live. It is central to Chinese identity and known by everyone there, just as Westerners know the story of Noah’s flood.” Continue reading First Geological Evidence for China’s [Da Yu’s] “Great Flood” Uncovered

Dangerous History! How Quackademia Suppresses True British Arturian & Christian Welsh History

Richard D. Hall speaks to Adrian Gilbert about his latest book “The Blood of Avalon”. The book continues on from his earlier work with historians Wilson and Blackett about the real King Arthur in South Wales. He has made some incredible discoveries independently of Wilson and Blackett which provide further evidence that the famous King Arthur legend does in fact originate in Glamorgan. By analysing various place names he has pin pointed the actual location of the Grail Castle spoken of in Arthurian legend.

He also explains that the name of the church which Wilson and Blackett excavated in 1990, where Arthurian artefacts were found, is named after Bedivere, one of Arthur’s knights. This area is known in legends as Avalon, and was able to hold onto its original history for many years due to the fact that the land remained for centuries outside of Norman rule. Adrian explains how blood lines are crucially important when making a claim to the throne. The Holy Grail Arthurian bloodline could present a major threat to the current royal bloodline of the UK, which might explain the attempts to bury Wilson and Blackett and their research – and why someone in 2011 detonated a bomb strategically placed under Baram Blacket’s bed. Three MUST WATCH videos. Continue reading Dangerous History! How Quackademia Suppresses True British Arturian & Christian Welsh History

Forbidden Archaeology Documentary Suppressed ‘Impossible’ Historical Truth for Humankind Revealed!

This is one of the best video in this genre of suppressed History proving the Antediluvial Golden Age of Human wisdom and high technology that explains the sudden rise of ready made civilisations like Sumeria, Egypt, Indus Valley, etc, without any Darwinian slant of ‘Stone Age Prehistory.’ I could have made it myself, if I had the time, resources, and video talents that this media outlet has. It fully subscribes to and underlines ALL I have been trying to say in this History Blog for years! Enjoy and be educated, my friends. True history is getting its boots on and kicking the money-ed tax-supported Darwinian fantasy peddlers out of true Academia.

MUST WATCH! AND IF YOU HAVE A HARD TIME UNDERSTANDING ENGLISH, USE THE CC BUTTON under the video. Continue reading Forbidden Archaeology Documentary Suppressed ‘Impossible’ Historical Truth for Humankind Revealed!

WOW! I was WRONG! Were the Pyramids Built Before the Flood?

BECAUSE I WOULD HATE TO MISLEAD PEOPLE, I have to get this out before I write my retractions and corrections of our articles BASED on our presumed Flood Date of 2345 BC, which I now know is wrong!! I will have to correct some of our articles. I am so glad that Nathan Hoffmann found the truth of a 3000 BC Flood! It explains so much better the many mysteries like enough time for the Egyptians to build the pyramids and the Chinese to leave Sumeria!!! Our Chinese dating of 2300 BC for Huang Di and 2.200 BC for Da Yu and the beginning of the Xia dynasty are therefore correct! MUST WATCH!

And please DO  read our writings in the brighter light of this new true revelation on Non-Darwinian history! Please come back soon for a full article on this subject, or an update of this article. I sincerely hope that the dogmatists will not hold on to their dogmas, but will have enough humility to let go! (Hovind? Quayle?) We should not be afraid to fine tune our understanding, and submit to team work. NO  one is smart enough to understand everything perfectly! We ALL need each other and be humble enough to receive correction!

1  Were the Pyramids Built Before the Flood? (Masoretic Text vs. Original Hebrew)

2  How Long Were The Israelites In Egypt?

3  David Rohl explaining how long the Israelites were in Egypt

Medieval Armenian Sibylline Traditions comprising the “Defloratio Berosi” of Giovanni Nanni

(Johannes Annius) (§§884-891)

  1. Go to §885, below, >>, for a translation of the Defloratio Berosi, and to §891, below, >>, for the original Latin. The Defloratio Berosi Chaldaica, to give it its full title, was divided into five books. These, according to Nanni’s preface to the Defloratio (fol. CIVb), were addressed in their original form to the Athenians, and were intended to correct perceived errors in their accounts of ancient history. Berossus is known to have been well received by philosophers in Athens towards the end of his life, after he had moved his residence from Babylon to the Aegean island of Cos. (Pliny, Nat Hist. VII. xxxvii [123].) The Defloratio differed in the above respects from the “Babyloniaka” of Berossus, several excerpts of which have been preserved by ancient authors: the “Babyloniaka” was divided into three books, not five, and was dedicated to Antiochus II Theos, the king of Seleucid Babylon when Berossus was still present in that city, before he moved to Cos and was honored at Athens. This is one of the principal reasons why the Defloratio was rejected in the Renaissance: it was presumed it was claiming to be the “Babyloniaka” of Berossus, and it was known from the surviving fragments of the latter that the presumption was mistaken. However, the Hebrew Sibyl known as the “daughter Berossus” may well have drawn on the writings of her priestly “father,” including the sources of the “Babyloniaka,” to compose “Summary Extracts (Defloratio) from Berosus (Berosi),” — as the title of the work should perhaps be translated, — of relevance to the historical inquiries of the Athenians. It was alleged the Hebrew Sibyl was born in Syria of Manasseh (a Hebrew name) by Papilia, a female related to Alexander of Macedon, and that she migrated subsequently to Cumae in Italy. (Vaticinium Sibyllae, MGH SS 22, p. 376.) The Sibylline hypothesis is reasonable: it harmonizes with what we know otherwise of her work. The chief reasons for classing the Defloratio Berosi as a medieval Sibylline fragment are, therefore, as follows:

Continue reading Medieval Armenian Sibylline Traditions comprising the “Defloratio Berosi” of Giovanni Nanni

ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE DEFLORATIO BEROSI CHALDAICA.

884.6. The original Latin of the Defloratio Berosi follows the translation at §891, below, >>. The first section of the translation, through the earlier part of Book Five of the Defloratio, is by Salverté (Essai historique et philosophique sur les noms d’hommes, de peuples et de lieux, E. Salverté, tome II, Paris 1824, p. 369ff.), as translated from French into English by Mordaque, and modified here, on occasion, to correct obvious errors, or to reflect the original better; the remainder of Book Five, left untranslated by Salverté, and therefore also by Mordaque, is my own rendering. The English translation of Salverté by Mordaque is from the “History of the Names of Men, Nations and Places, in their connection with the Progress of Civilization. Translated from the French of Eusebius Salverté by Rev. L. H. Mordaque, M.A., Oxon.,” vol II, London 1864, p. 295ff. Salverté’s translation was of the text of the Defloratio Berosi itself, as transcribed by Nanni from the book obtained in Armenia and given to him in Italy by the monk George. Salverté did not translate Nanni’s commentary on the Defloratio Berosi. The Defloratio Berosi and the accompanying commentary forms Book XV of Nanni’s Antiquitates. Nanni’s extensive commentary is not included in this translation either, except in a few instances, so references in “The Six Days of Creation” to the Defloratio (in the 1512 edition of the Antiquitates in Latin, published by Joannes Paruus and Jodocus Badius), or to other sections of the Antiquitates not found here, can be presumed to be part of the commentary on the Defloratio itself, or to be extracted from other works and/or accompanying commentaries contained in the Antiquitates. My own notes are contained within braces { }.

DEFLORATIO BEROSI CHALDAICA

Complete translation from Latin to English:

  1. “THE FIRST BOOK

Before the well-known disaster by which the whole world perished beneath the waters, many centuries had elapsed, the records of which have been faithfully preserved by our Chaldeans. According to their writings, there lived in those days a race of giants, in a city of great size, called Enos {= Enoch} near Mount Lebanon, which was the seat of empire over the whole world, from the rising of the sun to its setting. Trusting in their strength and colossal size, these giants made themselves weapons, and oppressed their neighbors all around. Wholly given up to a life of indulgence, they invented tents, instruments of music, and everything which contributes to pleasure. Continue reading ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE DEFLORATIO BEROSI CHALDAICA.

Sir Isaac Newton on ancient history

Compiled By Brian Forbes

Sir Isaac Newton, a father of physics, who discovered the math of gravity, was interested in early history. He summarized it by saying that kings were made into gods by their citizens. Kings of cities were deified by their cities, and kings of nations by their nations.

He said that this practice didn’t happen over time from the bottom up, but right away from the top down. He said that the original religion was given by Noah, but Mercury changed all that in honor of Osiris & Isis. He said that the historians of Egypt made the gods more ancient than they really were, and that many were ruling during the reign of king David of Israel. Continue reading Sir Isaac Newton on ancient history