Category Archives: Mesopotamia

HISTORY OF THE PERSIAN EMPIRE – HISTORIES BY HERODOTUS

Translated by George Rawlinson

Book 1 – CLIO

[1.0] THESE are the researches of Herodotus of Halicarnassus, which he publishes, in the hope of thereby preserving from decay the remembrance of what men have done, and of preventing the great and wonderful actions of the Greeks and the Barbarians from losing their due meed of glory; and withal to put on record what were their grounds of feuds.

[1.1] According to the Persians best informed in history, the Phoenicians began to quarrel. This people, who had formerly dwelt on the shores of the Erythraean Sea, having migrated to the Mediterranean and settled in the parts which they now inhabit, began at once, they say, to adventure on long voyages, freighting their vessels with the wares of Egypt and Assyria. They landed at many places on the coast, and among the rest at Argos, which was then preeminent above all the states included now under the common name of Hellas. Here they exposed their merchandise, and traded with the natives for five or six days; at the end of which time, when almost everything was sold, there came down to the beach a number of women, and among them the daughter of the king, who was, they say, agreeing in this with the Greeks, Io, the child of Inachus. The women were standing by the stern of the ship intent upon their purchases, when the Phoenicians, with a general shout, rushed upon them. The greater part made their escape, but some were seized and carried off. Io herself was among the captives. The Phoenicians put the women on board their vessel, and set sail for Egypt. Thus did Io pass into Egypt, according to the Persian story, which differs widely from the Phoenician: and thus commenced, according to their authors, the series of outrages.

[1.2] At a later period, certain Greeks, with whose name they are unacquainted, but who would probably be Cretans, made a landing at Tyre, on the Phoenician coast, and bore off the king’s daughter, Europe. In this they only retaliated; but afterwards the Greeks, they say, were guilty of a second violence. They manned a ship of war, and sailed to Aea, a city of Colchis, on the river Phasis; from whence, after despatching the rest of the business on which they had come, they carried off Medea, the daughter of the king of the land. The monarch sent a herald into Greece to demand reparation of the wrong, and the restitution of his child; but the Greeks made answer that, having received no reparation of the wrong done them in the seizure of Io the Argive, they should give none in this instance.

[1.3] In the next generation afterwards, according to the same authorities, Alexander the son of Priam, bearing these events in mind, resolved to procure himself a wife out of Greece by violence, fully persuaded, that as the Greeks had not given satisfaction for their outrages, so neither would he be forced to make any for his. Accordingly he made prize of Helen; upon which the Greeks decided that, before resorting to other measures, they would send envoys to reclaim the princess and require reparation of the wrong. Their demands were met by a reference to the violence which had been offered to Medea, and they were asked with what face they could now require satisfaction, when they had formerly rejected all demands for either reparation or restitution addressed to them.

[1.4] Hitherto the injuries on either side had been mere acts of common violence; but in what followed the Persians consider that the Greeks were greatly to blame, since before any attack had been made on Europe, they led an army into Asia. Now as for the carrying off of women, it is the deed, they say, of a rogue: but to make a stir about such as are carried off, argues a man a fool. Men of sense care nothing for such women, since it is plain that without their own consent they would never be forced away. The Asiatics, when the Greeks ran off with their women, never troubled themselves about the matter; but the Greeks, for the sake of a single Lacedaemonian girl, collected a vast armament, invaded Asia, and destroyed the kingdom of Priam. Henceforth they ever looked upon the Greeks as their open enemies. For Asia, with all the various tribes of barbarians that inhabit it, is regarded by the Persians as their own; but Europe and the Greek race they look on as distinct and separate.

[1.5] Such is the account which the Persians give of these matters. They trace to the attack upon Troy their ancient enmity towards the Greeks. The Phoenicians, however, as regards Io, vary from the Persian statements. They deny that they used any violence to remove her into Egypt; she herself, they say, having formed an intimacy with the captain, while his vessel lay at Argos, and perceiving herself to be with child, of her own free will accompanied the Phoenicians on their leaving the shore, to escape the shame of detection and the reproaches of her parents. Whether this latter account be true, or whether the matter happened otherwise, I shall not discuss further. I shall proceed at once to point out the person who first within my own knowledge inflicted injury on the Greeks, after which I shall go forward with my history, describing equally the greater and the lesser cities. For the cities which were formerly great have most of them become insignificant; and such as are at present powerful, were weak in the olden time. I shall therefore discourse equally of both, convinced that human happiness never continues long in one stay.

[1.6] Croesus, son of Alyattes, by birth a Lydian, was lord of all the nations to the west of the river Halys. This stream, which separates Syria from Paphlagonia, runs with a course from south to north, and finally falls into the Euxine. So far as our knowledge goes, he was the first of the barbarians who had dealings with the Greeks, forcing some of them to become his tributaries, and entering into alliance with others. He conquered the Aeolians, Ionians, and Dorians of Asia, and made a treaty with the Lacedaemonians. Up to that time all Greeks had been free. For the Cimmerian attack upon Ionia, which was earlier than Croesus, was not a conquest of the cities, but only an inroad for plundering. Continue reading HISTORY OF THE PERSIAN EMPIRE – HISTORIES BY HERODOTUS

Forbidden Archaeology Documentary Suppressed ‘Impossible’ Historical Truth for Humankind Revealed!

This is one of the best video in this genre of suppressed History proving the Antediluvial Golden Age of Human wisdom and high technology that explains the sudden rise of ready made civilisations like Sumeria, Egypt, Indus Valley, etc, without any Darwinian slant of ‘Stone Age Prehistory.’ I could have made it myself, if I had the time, resources, and video talents that this media outlet has. It fully subscribes to and underlines ALL I have been trying to say in this History Blog for years! Enjoy and be educated, my friends. True history is getting its boots on and kicking the money-ed tax-supported Darwinian fantasy peddlers out of true Academia.

MUST WATCH! AND IF YOU HAVE A HARD TIME UNDERSTANDING ENGLISH, USE THE CC BUTTON under the video. Continue reading Forbidden Archaeology Documentary Suppressed ‘Impossible’ Historical Truth for Humankind Revealed!

Medieval Armenian Sibylline Traditions comprising the “Defloratio Berosi” of Giovanni Nanni

(Johannes Annius) (§§884-891)

  1. Go to §885, below, >>, for a translation of the Defloratio Berosi, and to §891, below, >>, for the original Latin. The Defloratio Berosi Chaldaica, to give it its full title, was divided into five books. These, according to Nanni’s preface to the Defloratio (fol. CIVb), were addressed in their original form to the Athenians, and were intended to correct perceived errors in their accounts of ancient history. Berossus is known to have been well received by philosophers in Athens towards the end of his life, after he had moved his residence from Babylon to the Aegean island of Cos. (Pliny, Nat Hist. VII. xxxvii [123].) The Defloratio differed in the above respects from the “Babyloniaka” of Berossus, several excerpts of which have been preserved by ancient authors: the “Babyloniaka” was divided into three books, not five, and was dedicated to Antiochus II Theos, the king of Seleucid Babylon when Berossus was still present in that city, before he moved to Cos and was honored at Athens. This is one of the principal reasons why the Defloratio was rejected in the Renaissance: it was presumed it was claiming to be the “Babyloniaka” of Berossus, and it was known from the surviving fragments of the latter that the presumption was mistaken. However, the Hebrew Sibyl known as the “daughter Berossus” may well have drawn on the writings of her priestly “father,” including the sources of the “Babyloniaka,” to compose “Summary Extracts (Defloratio) from Berosus (Berosi),” — as the title of the work should perhaps be translated, — of relevance to the historical inquiries of the Athenians. It was alleged the Hebrew Sibyl was born in Syria of Manasseh (a Hebrew name) by Papilia, a female related to Alexander of Macedon, and that she migrated subsequently to Cumae in Italy. (Vaticinium Sibyllae, MGH SS 22, p. 376.) The Sibylline hypothesis is reasonable: it harmonizes with what we know otherwise of her work. The chief reasons for classing the Defloratio Berosi as a medieval Sibylline fragment are, therefore, as follows:

Continue reading Medieval Armenian Sibylline Traditions comprising the “Defloratio Berosi” of Giovanni Nanni

ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE DEFLORATIO BEROSI CHALDAICA.

884.6. The original Latin of the Defloratio Berosi follows the translation at §891, below, >>. The first section of the translation, through the earlier part of Book Five of the Defloratio, is by Salverté (Essai historique et philosophique sur les noms d’hommes, de peuples et de lieux, E. Salverté, tome II, Paris 1824, p. 369ff.), as translated from French into English by Mordaque, and modified here, on occasion, to correct obvious errors, or to reflect the original better; the remainder of Book Five, left untranslated by Salverté, and therefore also by Mordaque, is my own rendering. The English translation of Salverté by Mordaque is from the “History of the Names of Men, Nations and Places, in their connection with the Progress of Civilization. Translated from the French of Eusebius Salverté by Rev. L. H. Mordaque, M.A., Oxon.,” vol II, London 1864, p. 295ff. Salverté’s translation was of the text of the Defloratio Berosi itself, as transcribed by Nanni from the book obtained in Armenia and given to him in Italy by the monk George. Salverté did not translate Nanni’s commentary on the Defloratio Berosi. The Defloratio Berosi and the accompanying commentary forms Book XV of Nanni’s Antiquitates. Nanni’s extensive commentary is not included in this translation either, except in a few instances, so references in “The Six Days of Creation” to the Defloratio (in the 1512 edition of the Antiquitates in Latin, published by Joannes Paruus and Jodocus Badius), or to other sections of the Antiquitates not found here, can be presumed to be part of the commentary on the Defloratio itself, or to be extracted from other works and/or accompanying commentaries contained in the Antiquitates. My own notes are contained within braces { }.

DEFLORATIO BEROSI CHALDAICA

Complete translation from Latin to English:

  1. “THE FIRST BOOK

Before the well-known disaster by which the whole world perished beneath the waters, many centuries had elapsed, the records of which have been faithfully preserved by our Chaldeans. According to their writings, there lived in those days a race of giants, in a city of great size, called Enos {= Enoch} near Mount Lebanon, which was the seat of empire over the whole world, from the rising of the sun to its setting. Trusting in their strength and colossal size, these giants made themselves weapons, and oppressed their neighbors all around. Wholly given up to a life of indulgence, they invented tents, instruments of music, and everything which contributes to pleasure. Continue reading ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE DEFLORATIO BEROSI CHALDAICA.

What Did Sanchoniathon, Phoenicia’s Ancient Historian, Write?

PIC BYBLOS LEBANON – courtesy onemilegrads.blogspot

Sanchuniathon, (flourished 13th century BC?), ancient Phoenician writer. All information about him is derived from the works of Philo of Byblos (flourished ad 100). Excavations at Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit) in Syria in 1929 revealed Phoenician documents supporting much of Sanchuniathon’s information on Phoenician mythology and religious beliefs. According to Philo, Sanchuniathon derived the sacred lore from inscriptions on the Ammouneis (i.e., images or pillars of Baal Amon), which stood in Phoenician temples.
  — From Encyclopædia Britannica.

Eusebius says that Philo placed Sanchuniathon’s works into nine books. In the introduction to the first book he makes this preface concerning Sanchuniathon:

“These things being so, Sanchuniathon, who was a man of much learning and great curiosity, and desirous of knowing the earliest history of all nations from the creation of the world, searched out with great care the history of Taautus, knowing that of all men under the sun Taautus was the first who thought of the invention of letters, and began the writing of records: and he laid the foundation, as it were, of his history, by beginning with him, whom the Egyptians called Thoyth, and the Alexandrians Thoth, translated by the Greeks into Hermes.”

The following translation is from I. P. Cory’s Ancient Fragments (1828/1832). Cory has provided citations for the passages in Eusebius’ work from which this epitome of Sanchuniathon has been reconstructed.

Continue reading What Did Sanchoniathon, Phoenicia’s Ancient Historian, Write?

Tomb of Gilgamesh Found in Uruk! By Wikipedia Damned Euhemerism Vindicated Again!

Wow! This was big news! Shocking! Gilgamesh turns out to be more than fiction or myth, contrary to what academia has been pushing for a century. Gilgamesh was a real person and they found his tomb, just as it was said in the epic, built under the course of the Euphrates River! It only got a little mention in the BBC (in One Minute World News) where Uruk – the origin of eponymous Iraq!

NOTE how the BBC says “believed found!” If it was “Lucy’s” bones found over a couple square kilometers, they’d say, “definite proof of humanoid primate!” See, it all depends on what they want you to believe.

In this case the find of Gilgamesh tomb ought to be called the find of the decade or of the 21st century, as yet another ancient literary source (2300 BC) turns out to be historical and less “mythological” than widely assumed. Uruk was the first city? Responsible for most first inventions, like writing, law, education, taxes, love songs, ethics, justice, agriculture, medicine, love and family? Wow, that early?

But inspite of all these proven first inventions, mainstream historians don’t trust Sumer’s own historical writings and denounce them as fictitious mythology without any core of truth. After all they were the immdiate descendents of stupid cavemen and hunter gatherers! And Euhemerism is ‘a bad bad method of doing history!’ For sure!!

Continue reading Tomb of Gilgamesh Found in Uruk! By Wikipedia Damned Euhemerism Vindicated Again!

Full Text of Eusebius’ Chronicle Chronicon Proving the Patriarchs & the Flood

[i] Eusebius, (ca. 263-ca. 339) author of the Chronicle translated below, was a major Christian author and cleric of the fourth century. His other writings, many of which have survived, include the Ecclesiastical History, the Life of Constantine, historical, martyrological, apologetic, dogmatic, exegetical, and miscellaneous works. Although originally written in Greek, his important Chronicle (Chronography, or Chronicon) has survived fully only in an Armenian translation of the 5th century, of which our present edition is a translation. A fifth century Latin translation (known as Jerome’s Chronicle) contains only the second part of Eusebius’ two-part work, namely the chronological tables which accompany the text of Book One. Nonetheless, the Latin translation of the chronological tables is invaluable, since the beginning and ending of the corresponding Armenian parts of Book Two are damaged. Reflecting 5th century Armenia’s multi-lingual cultural milieu, Eusebius’ Chronicle initially was translated into Armenian from the original Greek, then corrected using a Syriac edition. During the same period Eusebius’ other influential work, the Ecclesiastical History, was translated into Armenian from the Syriac. From almost the moment of their translation, Eusebius’ works played an important role in the development of Armenian historical writing.

Many of Eusebius’ extant Greek texts were written while the author worked at the library in Caesarea Palestina founded by the scholar Origen (ca. 185–ca. 254), where he had access to numerous works of antiquity which have not survived. Eusebius’ welcome technique of including sometimes lengthy passages from such lost works guaranteed his writings an important place in historical literature, quite apart from his impressive literary and analytical abilities. These general characteristics of Eusebius’ work are particularly highlighted in the Chronicle. The Chronicle was the ancient world’s first systematic, chronologically sound, universal history. It begins with the earliest extant written records available to our author and continues to his own day, that is to the year 325.

Among the sources cited and often quoted from at length are Berosus, Alexander Polyhistor, Abydenus, Josephus, Castor, Diodorus, Cephalion, various named translations of the Bible, the writings of Manetho, Porphyrius, and others. In a brief introduction, Eusebius describes the plan of his work. He proposes to give a prose description of salient events and personalities from the civilizations of the Chaldeans, Assyrians, Medes, Lydians, Persians, Hebrews, Egyptians, and Greeks, plus listings of the Greek Olympiads, and the rulers of the Greek city-states, the Macedonians, and Romans. Continue reading Full Text of Eusebius’ Chronicle Chronicon Proving the Patriarchs & the Flood

“The Eight” Flood Survivors in Global Deluge Legends A Shared Human Memory

A big percentage of the – by now – over 700 global Flood legends, mentioned exactly eight people who were spared and survived. It is uncanny that this number is handed down as fact so uniformly, instead of ten or five or some other random number.

EGYPT: In ancient Egypt one Flood hero was Toth who survived the Deluge along with his Seven Sages.

The Egyptian ‘Ogdoad (does the Latin word for 8 ‘octo’ from that?) were a group of eight survivors led by the main character Nun and his wife Naunet. Nun or Nu (Noah) is pictured in Egyptian art as upholding his boat with the seven other survivors here:

Continue reading “The Eight” Flood Survivors in Global Deluge Legends A Shared Human Memory

The Ancient German History of Tuitsch or Deutsch Most Germans Aren’t Allowed to Know!

COMPENDIUM OF WORLD HISTORY VOLUME 2 A Dissertation Presented to The Faculty of the Ambassador College Graduate School of Education In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy by Herman L. Hoeh – 1963

INTRODUCTION BY HERMAN HOEH

The first volume of the COMPENDIUM OF WORLD HISTORY exposed the radical new interpretation of history now taught on all levels of modern education. It revealed the fallacy of the “historical method.” It explained WHY God is left out of history.

Volume I restored the history of ancient Egypt, of Assyria and Babylonia, of Media and India, of Greece, Ireland and Britain. This volume completes that restoration. For the first time, in this second volume, the early history of Europe will be made plain. Its connection with the New World, with American Indian civilization, with the early
Biblical heroes is an astounding revelation.

CHAPTER I

EARLY HISTORY OF GERMANY

The time has come to reveal the true history of Europe.

The Germans for centuries have dominated the heartland of Western Europe. Because of the geographic position Germany’s transportation lines constitute the vital arteries of the continent. Without the beating of the German heart, Europe would lose its economic and political prominence in world affairs.

Ancient Roman writers would have us believe that the Germans in the Roman heyday were mere barbarians, an insignificant people roaming the forests of northern Europe.
Was this Roman report the whole truth? Were the ancient Roman writers keeping back from their people the facts of German history?

Rome conquered Spain, Gaul, Southern Britain, all North Africa to the Sahara, Illyria, Greece, Asia to the Euphrates. But Rome had to draw its boundary in the north along the Rhine. Why? Why was Rome not able to subdue all Germany? Why, after centuries of bloodshed, did Rome finally succumb to the hammer blows of the Germanic Goths and Vandals? It is high time we were told the true history of early Germany.

The origin of the German people in Europe is rooted in patriarchal times. The history of early Germany, suppressed by the Romans, was revived briefly in the German-dominated Middle Ages. But before the close of the seventeenth century not even the Germans remembered their past. It had been stamped out in the name of education and religion. Continue reading The Ancient German History of Tuitsch or Deutsch Most Germans Aren’t Allowed to Know!

Sumerian stone head of a “mythical” creature… or a Saurolophus?

By Chris s8int.com — October 17, 2010 – Photo:Viewing a “Sumerian stone head of a mythical creature, Mesopotamia, Circa 2000 BC” on Sale at Auction in November 2009. Source: Mossgreen.

Sumerian Unicorn?

This (above) piece was exhibited in an Auction catalogue for Fine Arts auction that took place last year. (Fine Australian & International Art & Antiques ) It appears to have been purchased at the minimum bid of $148.38 by an unknown bidder. The auction house identified the piece as that of a “mythical creature” from Mesopotamia, circa 2,000 B.C. (Size 5cm)

suarolophusskeleton Continue reading Sumerian stone head of a “mythical” creature… or a Saurolophus?